Carnitine is synthesized in the liver by humans as well as being a part of the diet intake in the form of muscle (meat) and organ meats. It is not found in vegetable forms of protein. Carnitine is not an Essential Amino Acid.
The Tartrate form of L-Carnitine is used because it is the least hygroscopic of the Carnitine powders.
A number of therapeutic roles have been described for carnitine which is converted rapidly from lysine as well as methionine. The process of conversion is dependent upon adequate Vit C being available. The supply of carnitine is especially enhanced by lysine ingestion, as compared with other amino acid precursors.
It is suggested that men have a higher need for carnitine than women. Higher levels are found in serum in men than women, and men have high levels present in the epididymis of the testes. Lysine depletion in animals results in infertility as a result of the loss of sperm motility. Bland suggests that although carnitine is not a vitamin it may be an essential nutrient in newborn infants due to an inadequate ability to synthesize it and in adults with genetic limitations in their ability to convert methionine or lysine to carnitine.
Carnitine has been shown to have a profound involvement in the metabolism of fat, and in the reduction of triglycerides. Oxidation of triglycerides occurs when 1g to 3 g of carnitine are administered daily. This is of potential value in conditions as diverse as intermittent claudication (pain or heaviness experienced in the legs) due to poor hand and food circulation, myocardial infarction and kidney disease. Carnitine transfers fatty acids across the membranes of the mitochondria, where they can be utilized as sources of energy.
A variety of other conditions have been suggested as being potential beneficiaries of carnitine supplementation: muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, since these lead to carnitine loss in the urine and therefore greater requirements of the substance. The application of carnitine to the stimulation of fat metabolism leads to possible benefits in cases of obesity. Fat is more readily mobilized and clearance is more rapid with the use of carnitine.
During acute or chronic cardiac ischemia or chronic hypoxia there occurs an accumulation of free fatty acids and long chain acetyl-CoA-esters, chemical compounds derived by reacting an oxoacid (one containing an oxo group, X=O) with a hydroxyl compound, which can damage the myocardium. Carnitine appears to offer protection by forming esters with these fatty substances. Carnitine has been shown to be deficient in hearts of patients who have died of acute myocardial infarctions, especially in necrotic tissue. It is postulated that areas immediately surround the necrotic areas could be restored to normal. Carnitine has been shown to be useful in conditions of ketosis in individuals on diets which produce the accumulation of ketone bodies, or fat waste products in the blood. Such a build up can acidify the blood resulting in Ca, Mg and potassium loss and can indeed be life-threatening. Fat metabolism requires carnitine to be adequately present. It is noted that in scurvy the fat levels of the blood are high. A low level of Vit C will result in apparent carnitine deficiency.
When the body is properly oxygenated then fat is the preferred energy source. L-Carnitine stimulates the fat in the mitochondria. The heart is the most efficient muscle for burning fat. If you are eating a high saturated fat diet then carnitine is very important in your diet. Certain co-factors are essential for optimal functioning of carnitine, such as magnesium and Vit B-6. Folic Acid can also enhance the functioning.
Carnitine transports long-chain acetyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, so they can be broken down through B-oxidation to Acetyl-CoA to obtain usable energy via the citric acid cycle.
In the course of human aging, carnitine concentration in cells diminishes, affecting fatty acid metabolism in various tissues. Particularly adversely affected are bones, which require continuous reconstructive and metabolic functions of osteoblasts for maintenance of bone mass. There is a close correlation between changes in plasma levels of osteocalcin and osteoblast activity and a reduction in osteocalcin plasma levels is an indicator of reduced osteoblast activity, which appears to underly osteoporosis in elderly subjects and in postmenopausal women.
1 teaspoon once a day or as directed by your health practitioner.